General Introduction. Christianity adjusting to the feudal world (AD 692-1085). Towards a Christian Europe (AD 692-840)? Time of anarchy (692-750). Carolinian renaissance (751-850). Western Churches outside Carolinian empire. The “Dark Ages” or a crisis for the birth of a new age (AD 840-1085)? Collapse of the Carolinian unity and order (840-930) Towards a new order of western Christendom (930-1046). Reform of Papacy and Church in reform (1046-1085). The parting of the first and second Churches. General features. Iconoclast controversies. The parting of the ways. The Church leader of the Society (AD 1085-1294). Western Society from 11th to 13th c. The Church in reform (1085-1153): struggles for freedom. Aspiration to a ‘vita evangelica’, the new orders. Control of violence: Peace and Holy War. A Christian Europe (1153-1294)? Papacy and the theocratic temptation. Life of Christendom in mid-12th-13th c. The Byzantine Church and the period of the crusades. A time of unprecedented challenge (AD 1294-1453). General features of Western Society in the 14th and 15th c: a world in crisis. Papacy to the test. Boniface VIII and the rise of lay spirit. Stay in Avignon. Scandal of the western Great Schism. Reform and unity: Pope or Council? Christianity in labour. Christian life. New Ecclesiologies. New ways to perfection. The fall of Byzantium. Last struggle and agony of Byzantium. Orthodoxy in the last century of Byzantium. General conclusion. Evaluation.
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